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Site Assessment


Phase II ESAs and Remedial Investigations serve as the mechanism for collecting data to:


  • Characterize site conditions.

  • Determine the nature of the waste.

  • Assess risk to human health and the environment.

  • Conduct treatability testing to evaluate the potential performance and cost of the treatment technologies that are being considered.

  • Evaluating historical information for indications of the past use, storage, disposal, or release of hazardous wastes/substances at the Site or at adjacent properties,

  • Establishing through a field sampling and analysis program the nature of hazardous wastes/substances that may be present in soil at the Site, their concentration and general extent, and

  • Estimating the potential threat to public health and/or the environment posed by hazardous constituents at the Site using a residential land-use scenario.

Why conduct a Phase II ESA?

Phase II Environmental Site Assessments are critical to agency closure or property transaction in cases where soil gas, soil, or groundwater contamination is a potential or known environmental issue. The primary objectives of a remedial investigation are to characterize the nature and extent of contaminants in soil and/or groundwater; however, they also serve to add value to a property scheduled for sale by providing regulatory closure and “No Further Action” decisions for a new owner.


Another primary goal for Waterstone remedial investigation strategy is minimizing long-term client liability. Waterstone reviews all its environmental closure strategies (many times in conjunction with client’s counsel) with an eye on potential environmental issues that could occur even after a “No Further Action” decision from the oversight agency is achieved. We provide our clients options for lessening future liability through negotiation of environmental insurance policies, risk-based decisions, modeling, or other strategies based on the client’s needs and the project scope.


Careful planning and selection of the investigative strategy leading to closure of environmental issues is performed prior to field work so that our client’s ultimate goal for the property may be achieved. Where appropriate, a risk-based approach may be the piece of information needed to achieve regulatory closure or with an end goal of deriving site-specific cleanup levels in soil or groundwater if remediation is deemed necessary.

Methodology and Field Techniques

Waterstone conducts these investigations using carefully selected field techniques, equipment, and subcontractors that will most strongly support the overall project goals. Premium working relationships with multidisciplinary engineering firms, specialty contractors, and laboratories allows Waterstone to execute complex environmental projects of variable scopes and sizes.


Depending on site conditions and project goals, field sampling techniques may include hollow-stem auger drilling, air rotary drilling, sonic drilling, direct push methods (Geoprobe, Strataprobe), HydroPunch, cone penetrometer, Rapid Optical Screening Tool (ROST), downhole flux vapor measurement, onsite chemical testing kits, or BAT Enviroprobe. Waterstone utilizes the most appropriate technology to support closure strategies, site specific logistics, and cost effectiveness.

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